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# ICSE Class 10 Physics Chapter 9 Household Circuits Revision Notes

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## ICSE Class 10 Physics Chapter 9 Household Circuits Revision Notes

Revision is very important for better conceptual understanding and securing good marks, and for Revision, Revision Notes are always considered the best. ICSE Class 10 Physics Chapter 9 Household Circuits Revision Notes are one of the most important pieces of study material that students can receive, as it will aid them to study better and reduce the level of stress that students face during the hectic year

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## Electrical Energy

Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy. Or it is the energy created by electrons moving through an electrical conductor. Electrical energy talks about energy which has been converted from electric potential energy. This energy is supplied by the combination of electric current and electric potential that is delivered by the circuit.

Measurement of electrical energy:

W =QV = VIt = I2 Rt

Examples:

1. When an electric current is passed through a metallic wire due to its resistance, it gets heated up and electric energy is converted into heat energy which is used for heating purposes.
2. When an electric current is passed through an electric lamp, the filament of the bulb gets heated to an extent that it glows. The electrical energy thus changes into heat energy and light energy.

## Electrical Power

Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The equation H = I2 RT gives the rate at which electric energy is dissipated or consumed in an electric circuit. This is also termed as electric power.

The power P is given by:
P = VI = P = I2 R = V2 R.

The SI unit of electric power is watt (W). It is the power consumed by a device that carries 1 A of current when operated at a potential difference of 1 V.

1 W = 1-volt x 1 ampere = 1 V A. The unit ‘watt’ is very small. Therefore, in actual practice, we use a much larger unit called ‘kilowatt’.

1 kilowatt = 1000 watts. Since electrical energy is the product of power and time, the unit of electric energy is, therefore, watt-hour (W h). One-watt hour is the energy consumed when 1 watt of power is used for 1 hour.

## Power Generation

Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utilities, it is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. Electricity is most often generated at a power station by electromechanical generators, primarily driven by heat engines fuelled by combustion or nuclear fission but also by other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing water and the wind.

Transmission of power from the generating station:

• At the generating station, the electric power is generated at 11,000 volts or 11 kV
• The alternating voltage generated is first stepped up from 11 kV to 132 kV at the generating station or the grid sub-station
• At the main substation, the voltage is stepped down from 132 kV to 33 kV
• At the intermediate sub-station voltage is stepped down from 33 kV to 11 kV
• At the city sub-station, it is stepped down from 11 kV to 220 V to supply to the domestic consumers

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