ICSE Class 10 Physics Chapter 7 Sound Revision Notes
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Reflection of Sound Waves – The bouncing back of the sound wave on striking a surface such as a wall, metal sheet, plywood, etc., is called the reflection of the sound wave.
Echo – The sound heard after reflection from a distant obstacle (such as a cliff, a hillside, etc.) after the original sound has ceased, is called an echo.
Reverberation – If the distance is less than 17 m, then the original sound mixes with the reflected sound. Due to repeated reflections at the reflecting surface, the sound gets prolonged. This effect is known as reverberation.
Elastic or mechanical waves:
- The sound waves necessarily require a medium for their propagation
- These waves travel in a medium through the vibrations of the medium particles about their mean positions
- Hence, they are called elastic or mechanical waves
Types of Mechanical Waves
(i) Longitudinal waves:
- The vibrations of medium particles are along the direction of propagation
- Compressions and rarefactions are formed in the medium
(ii) Transverse waves:
- The vibrations of medium particles are perpendicular to the direction of propagation
- Crests and troughs are formed in the medium
Resonance is a special case of forced vibrations. When the frequency of an externally applied periodic force on a body is equal to its natural frequency, the body starts vibrating with an increased amplitude. This phenomenon is called resonance and the vibrations of large amplitude are called resonant vibrations
Condition for resonance – Resonance occurs when the frequency of the applied force is exactly equal to the natural frequency of the vibrating body
Examples of resonance
- Sympathetic vibrations of pendulums
- Resonance in machine parts
- Resonance in a stretched string and sound box of musical instruments and sonometer
- Resonance in air column and tuning fork
- Resonance in a bridge
- Resonance in radio and TV receivers
It is the property by virtue of which a loud sound can be distinguished from a faint one, both having the same pitch and frequency. Loudness is expressed in a unit called decibel (dB). It is directly proportional to the amplitude of vibration.
The amount of sound energy passing each second through a unit area is called the intensity of sound.
Pitch is that characteristic of sound by which an acute (or shrill) note can be distinguished from a grave or flat note. It is not the same as frequency. It refers to the sensation as perceived by the listener.
Quality / Timbre
The quality or timbre of the sound is that characteristic which enables us to distinguish one sound from another having the same pitch and loudness, but emitted by two different instruments.
ICSE Class 10 Physics Chapter 7 Sound Revision Notes PDF