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ICSE Class 10 Physics Chapter 3 Machines Revision Notes

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ICSE Class 10 Physics Chapter 3 Machines Revision Notes

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Machines

It is a device by which we can either overcome a large resistive force (or load) at some point by applying a small force (or effort) at a convenient point and in the desired direction or by which we can obtain a gain in speed.

Principle of a Machine

When energy is supplied to a machine by applying the effort, it does some useful work.

• The point at which the energy is supplied to a machine by applying the effort is called effort point
• The point where the energy is obtained by overcoming the load is called load point
• Input energy = Work is done at effort point = Effort × displacement of the point of application of effort
• Output energy = Work done at load point = Load × displacement of the point of application of load

Ideal and Actual Machine

An ideal machine is that in which there is no loss of energy in any manner. In an actual machine, the output energy is always less than the input energy.

The reasons are:

1. The moving parts in it are neither weightless nor smooth.
2. The string in it (if any) is not perfectly inelastic.
3. Its different parts are not perfectly rigid.