ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 7 Metallurgy Revision Notes
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Position and Characteristics of S Block Elements
Alkali metals and alkaline earth metals are found in the s block of the periodic table.
1. Occurrence: These metals occur naturally as carbonates, sulphides, oxides, or halides in the earth’s crust and these are called minerals. They are very reactive and hence cannot be found free in nature.
2. Nature: Soft, low boiling, and melting points, silvery-white in color, lustrous
3. Bonding: Ionic in nature, form electrovalent compounds. Alkali metals form uni-positive ions (M+) and alkaline earth metals form bi positive ions (M2+).
As mentioned in the introduction, the activity series of metals is a list of metals ranked in order of decreasing reactivity to displace hydrogen gas from water and acid solutions.
Taking non-metal hydrogen as the reference, metals placed below hydrogen in the activity series cannot replace hydrogen from the diluted acids. On the other hand, the metals placed above hydrogen in the activity series can replace the other metals below from its salt solution.
A metal can displace a less reactive metal from its salt, but a less reactive metal cannot displace a metal more reactive than itself.
- K + FeSO4 ⟶ K2SO2 + Fe
- Fe + K2SO2 ⟶ no reaction
- Fe + CuSO4⟶ FeSO4+Cu
- Cu + FeSO4 ⟶ no reaction
Metals react with oxygen in the air to form metal oxides. Metals react with dilute acids to form hydrogen gas and a metal salt.
Extraction of Metals Based on the Activity Series
Metals occur naturally as carbonates, sulphides, oxides or halides in the earth’s crust and these are called minerals. If it is economically viable to extract the metal from the mineral it is called an ore. Thus, all ores are minerals but all minerals are not ores.
- Lead- PbS (galena)
- Mercury- HgS (cinnabar)
- Aluminium- Al(OH)3 (Bauxite)
- Iron – Fe3O4 (magnetite)
- Zinc- Calami Metals low down in the reactivity series (like gold, silver, platinum, and copper) are found in the native state.
ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 7 Metallurgy Revision Notes PDF