ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding Revision Notes

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ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding of Properties Revision Notes

 

Revision is very important for better conceptual understanding and securing good marks, and for Revision, Revision Notes are always considered the best. ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding Revision Notes are one of the most important pieces of study material that students can receive, as it will aid them to study better and reduce the level of stress that students face during the hectic year

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Chemical Bond

 

A chemical bond is the force of attraction between atoms that leads to the formation of chemical compounds. The bond occurs because of, electrostatic force of attraction between atoms of opposite charges, and through the sharing of electrons (in covalent bonds).

Atoms lose, gain, or share electrons to attain octet configuration and stability. The force of attraction is the result of the behavior of outermost or valence electrons. Based on this force, different types of bonds are formed giving rise to different properties in compounds.

The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably leading to the formation of either strong or primary bonds and weak or secondary bonds. Strong bonds include ionic or electrovalent bonds, covalent bonds, and co-ordinate covalent or dative bonds. Weak bonds include dipole-dipole interaction and hydrogen bonds.

 

The three main types of atomic bonds are:

 

1. Ionic Bonds: They are formed because of non-directional interatomic forces and electron transfer. They give structures of high coordination and there is electrical conductivity at low temperatures.

2. Covalent Bonds: They are formed because of localised (directional) large interatomic forces and electron sharing. They help form structures of low coordination and low conductivity at low temperatures (for pure crystals).

3. Metallic Bonds: They are formed due to non-directional large interatomic forces.

 

 

 

Ionic or Electrovalent Bond

 

Ionic bonding is the complete transfer of valence electron between atoms. Ionic bonds occur between metals (electron donors) and non-metals (electron acceptors) because of the electrostatic force of attraction between positive and negative ions. Ionic or electrovalent bonds are formed under the conditions of low ionization energy, high electron affinity, and high lattice energy.

 

 

 

Covalent Bond

 

Covalent bonds are formed between two or more atoms when they share electrons. They are normally formed between atoms of similar electronegativity and may occur between atoms of the same or of a different kind.

Example: Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen share 1, 2, and 3 electrons respectively, with similar atoms to form molecules. Carbon and hydrogen share electrons to form hydrocarbons.

Covalent bonds can be polar or non-polar. The more the difference in electronegativity, the more is the polar nature of the molecule. Polar covalent bonds are formed between atoms with differences in electronegativity, for
example, water, and hydrogen chloride.

Covalent bonds are of three types: single covalent bonds, double covalent bonds, and triple covalent bonds.

 

 

 

Co-ordinate Bond or Dative Bond

 

A coordinate covalent bond is also known as a dative bond or coordinate bond is a type of covalent bond in which the two-shared electrons are supplied by the same atom. It is formed by two atoms sharing a pair of electrons where one of the atoms has a lone pair of electrons. The electrons are attracted to both the nuclei. The atom which supplies both the electrons is called the donor and the other atom is called the acceptor.

A lone pair is a valence electron pair without bonding or sharing with other atoms. They are found in the outermost electron shell of an atom.

Example: Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons of which three are used for bonding with hydrogen to form ammonia.

Nitrogen in ammonia thus has one lone pair of electrons left. When ammonia combines with a hydrogen ion it forms ammonium ion. Nitrogen is the donor and hydrogen is the acceptor.

 

 

 

ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding of Properties Revision Notes PDF

 

 

 

 

 

 

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