ICSE Class 10 Chapter 5 Transpiration Revision Notes
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Transpiration is the evaporative loss of water from the aerial parts of the plant (leaves and stem). Transpiration is the process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapour and is released to the atmosphere.
Types of Transpiration
There are three types of transpiration:
1. Stomatal transpiration
This is the most dominant form of transpiration being responsible for most of the water loss in plants. It accounts for 90-95% of the water transpired from leaves. As the name suggests, the process involves the participation of the stomata or stomates, microscopic pores in the epidermis of the leaves.
Liquid water is first absorbed by the plant through its roots from the soil. It is then translocated via the xylem tissue in a continuous stream towards the mesophyll cells of the leaves. Either at the surfaces of the mesophyll cells or of the epidermal cells close to stomata, liquid water is converted to water vapour. It then escapes through the stomatal pore at the time when it is open to allow entry of CO2 and release of O2.
2. Cuticular Transpiration
This type of transpiration is responsible for the loss of water in plants via the cuticle. Water vapour directly diffuses through the cuticle on leaves and herbaceous stems and escapes to the atmosphere. The cuticle is a waxy or resinous layer of cutting, a fatty substance, covering the outside (epidermis) of leaves and other plant parts.
Except for the interruption by stomates and lenticels, the layer is continuous. The thickness of cuticle varies with species, but xerophytic plants generally have thicker cuticles. This layer repels water but has some permeability to water vapour.
3. Lenticular Transpiration
This type of transpiration is the loss of water from plants as vapour through the lenticels. The lenticels are tiny openings that protrude from the barks in woody stems and twigs as well as in other plant organs. Like cuticular transpiration, an escape of water vapour via the lenticels is too low compared to stomatal transpiration.
Similarly, lenticular transpiration tends to become significant in plants subjected to very dry conditions. Under these conditions, the stomata tend to close thus severely limiting stomatal transpiration.
ICSE Class 10 Biology Chapter 5 Transpiration Revision Notes PDF