ICSE Class 10 Chapter Biology Chapter 3 Genetics – Some Basic Fundamentals Revision Notes
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What is Genetics?
Genetics is a branch of biology that studies inheritance and variations. Inheritance is the process of passing characters from parents to offspring. Variation, on the other hand, is the degree by which an offspring differs from its parents.
A monohybrid cross is a mating between two individuals with different alleles at one genetic locus of interest. The character(s) being studied in a monohybrid cross are governed by two or multiple alleles for a single locus. A cross between 2 parents possessing a pair of contrasting characters is known as a monohybrid cross.
To carry out such a cross, each parent is chosen to be homozygous or true breeding for a given trait (locus). When a cross satisfies the conditions for a monohybrid cross, it is usually detected by a characteristic distribution of second-generation (F2) offspring that is sometimes called the monohybrid ratio. The ratio obtained when one pair of contrasting characters are considered. Monohybrid ratio is 3:1.
Dihybrid cross is a cross between two different lines (varieties, strains) that differ in two observed traits. In the Mendelian sense, between the alleles of both these loci, there is a relationship of complete dominance – recessive. In the name “Dihybrid cross”, the “di” indicates that there are two traits involved (e.g. R and Y), the “hybrid” means that each trait has two different alleles (e.g. R and r, or Y and y), and “cross” means that there are two individuals (usually a mother and father) who are combining or “crossing” their genetic information. The ratio obtained when two sets of contrasting characters are considered. Dihybrid ratio is 9:3:3:1.
ICSE Class 10 Chapter Biology Chapter 3 Genetics – Some Basic Fundamentals Revision Notes PDF