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ICSE Class 10 Biology Chapter 2 Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division Revision Notes

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ICSE Class 10  Chapter Biology Chapter 2 Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division  Revision Notes

 

Revision is very important for better conceptual understanding and securing good marks, and for Revision, Revision Notes are always considered the best. ICSE Class 10 Biology Chapter 2 Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division Revision Notes are one of the most important pieces of study material that students can receive, as it will aid them to study better and reduce the level of stress that students face during the hectic year

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The Structure of Chromosomes

 

In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-
like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure. Chromosomes are made of 50% proteins, and 50% DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

Chromosomes are made of many chromatin threads, each containing DNA and proteins. Somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes, gametic cells contain 23 chromosomes.44 of our chromosomes are AUTOSOMES, while 2 are called sex chromosomes. Each chromosome contains many GENES that act as a blueprint or set of instructions for the cell.

 

Chromatin: The substance distributed in the nucleus of a cell that condenses to form chromosomes during cell division. It consists mainly of DNA and proteins called histones.

Chromatid: A chromatid is one-half of two identical copies of a replicated chromosome. Centromere: The centromere is the constricted point at which the two chromatids forming the chromosome are joined together.

Gene: A portion of a DNA molecule that serves as the basic unit of heredity. Genes control the characteristics that an offspring will have by transmitting information in the sequence of nucleotides on short sections of DNA. A gene is a part of the DNA made up of a specific number of nucleotides. It is not a separate entity. Depending on the position of the centromere, different shapes of chromosomes have been identified.

 

 

Cell Division

 

It is a process by which one single cell gives rise to two or more cells.
Cell division is of two types, namely:

  • Mitosis
  • Meiosis

 

During the process of cell division, cell growth takes place, followed by DNA replication, nuclear division, and finally cytoplasmic division. The process of cell division must take place in a coordinated manner so that each cell divides correctly and the genomes of the progeny cells remain intact.

 

ICSE Class 10  Chapter Biology Chapter 2 Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division  Revision Notes PDF

 

Structure Of Chromosomes Cell Cycle And Cell Division

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