Class 4 English Grammar – Verbs

Verb
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Verbs

DEFINITION

A Verb is a word that describes actions or a state of being.

Verbs are words that give the idea of action, of doing; something.

Example:

words like run, fight, do and work, all convey action.

But some verbs do not give the idea of action; they give the idea of existence, of state, of ‘being’

STATE-OF-BEING VERBS/ VERBS OF BEING

  • Verbs of being express a state of existence.
  • Example- “am”, “is”, “was”, “were”, “will”, “be”, “being” are some verbs of being.
  • In other words, a state-of-being verb identifies who or what a noun is, was, or will be.
  • They modify according to the subject in the sentence.

Example:

  • Aditya is a student.
  • Shruti is a hard-worker.
  • Prasanna was always an early-riser.
  • They are
  • I am

ACTION VERBS

An action verb is a verb that expresses physical or mental action. The action verb tells us what the subject of our clause or sentence is doing-physically or mentally.

Example:

  • Josan walked to school.
  • Alina wants a doll house for her birthday.
  • Will you help me with my chores?

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TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS

TRANSITIVE VERBS

               INTRANSITIVE VERBS
A Transitive Verb is a Verb that denotes an action which passes over from the doer or Subject to an object.

Example:

  • John likes apples.
  • My sister cooks all our meals.
An Intransitive Verb is a Verb that denotes an action which does not pass over to an object, or which expresses a state or being.

Example:

  • He ran a long distance. (Action)
  • There is a flaw in this diamond. (Being)
  • The baby sleeps. (State)
  • Active Verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, depending on its usage in the sentence. Notice that the transitive meaning and the intransitive meaning are sometimes different.

TRANSITIVE VERB

INTRANSITIVE VERB
The pilot flies the plane very well.

The boys play football on weekends.

My mom runs her own company

Eagles fly high in the sky.

The boys play in the yard on weekends.

My mom runs in the park for fun.

How verbs changes with Subject

subject is singular- “s” added to the verb in present tense.

Eg. She reads. He prays.

If subject is more than one, only verb form in the present tense.

Eg. They read. They swim.

Past tense- “was” used for Singular subject and “were” for plural subjects.

SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT

Eg. She was reading. They were reading.

REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS

REGULAR VERBS

IRREGULAR VERBS
To form the past tense and the past participle of regular verbs, add –ed.

Eg-I walked to the store.

accept-accepted-will accept

A verb in which the past tense is not formed by adding the usual -ed ending.

Example:-

Awake–awoke–awoken

Drink-drank-drunk

How Verbs Change With The Tense

Simple Tense

Progressive Tense Perfect Tense
(when a specific period of time is referred).

Past- eg. I ate.

Present- eg. I eat.

Future- eg. I will eat.

(when reference to action that is “progressing”).

Past- eg. I was eating.

Present- eg. I am eating.

Future- eg. I will be eating.

(when reference to action that is continuing over time).

Past Perfect- eg. I had eaten.

Present Perfect- eg. I have eaten.

Future Perfect- eg. I will eat.

Note: Rules used to change the tense of most verbs.

EXAMPLE

Past Tense Present Tense Future Tense
RULE: Add -ed Add -s or es Add will before the verb
Word- Play Played Plays Will play

AUXILIARY VERBS

Auxiliary Verbs = “helping verbs”

Auxiliary verbs are verbs that are used before the main verb of the sentence to express the Action and the state.

The three most common auxiliary verbs are: be, do and have

The three most common auxiliary verbs are: be, do and have

Example:

I am leaving = Leaving is the main verb. Am is the auxiliary verb.

He has arrived = Arrived is the main verb. Has is the auxiliary verb.

Do you Run? = Run is the main verb. Do is the auxiliary verb.

Do / does / did

Do is common for forming questions and making negatives.

Did is used for do and does in the past tense. Do and does is never used for the past.

Eg: I do my homework.

Do I know you?

Did he finish his work?

Be = am / is / are

Be can be used as an auxiliary verb or the main verb in a sentence.

Be is also used to make passives.

Is tells us that an action is happening now or is going to happen in the future.

Are is used with they and we. (eg: They are excited)

Was is used as the past tense of am and is.

Were is used as the past tense of you, we and they.

Have = has / had

Have is used to make the present perfect tense (it is always followed by the past participle).

eg: I have a dog.

Has is used for the third person singular.

eg: He has lived in London.

Had is used for past tenses especially the past perfect tense.

MODAL VERBS

A modal verb is a type of verb that is used with other verbs to indicate obligation, ability, permission, request, capacity, suggestions, order, or advice.

Modal verbs modify the main verb.

Example:

“may”, “must”, “can”, “would”, “could”, “should”, etc.

Modal Auxiliaries – Helping Verbs indicating moods

Function

Modal Aux. Verb Negative
Ability/Permission Can Cannot
Past ability/ Permission Could Could not
Possibility/Permission/Request May May not
Necessity Need Need not

Examples:

  • I can speak a little Russian.
  • Can I open the window?
  • I may be home late.
  • May I sit down, please?
  • I must go now.
  • She must be over 90 years old.
  • You should stop smoking.
  • Would you like a cup of tea?
  • If I were you, I would say sorry.

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