- Punctuation is used to create sense, clarity and stress in sentences.
- One uses punctuation marks to structure and organise one’s writing.
Let’s eat Grandma
Let’s eat, Grandma!
- CAPITAL LETTERS
SYMBOL – CAPITAL LETTER – A
- PLACED AT THE BEGINNING OF ANY SENTENCE
- ALL PROPER NOUNS – NAMES, MONUMENTS, GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS, NATIONALITIES, LANGUAGES, DAYS, MONTHS, HOLIDAYS
- TITLES OF BOOKS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS, PLAYS, MOVIES
Naman is the editor of the newspaper The Times of India.
- FULL STOP
SYMBOL – FULL STOP – (.)
- PLACED AT THE END OF ANY SENTENCE
- USED BETWEEN INITIALS OR PERSONAL NAMES
- USED AFTER ABBREVIATIONS
R.P. BALI IS A DOCTOR.
SYMBOL – COMMA – (,)
USED TO SEPARATE A LIST OF SIMILAR WORDS OR PHRASES
SHE WAS YOUNG, BEAUTIFUL, KIND AND INTELLIGENT.
- QUESTION MARK
SYMBOL – QUESTION MARK – (?)
- USED TO SHOWCASE THAT A QUESTION HAS BEEN ASKED
- PLACED AT THE END OF THE INTERROGATORY SENTENCE
Do you speak Italian?
- EXCLAMATION MARK
SYMBOL – EXCLAMATION MARK – (!)
- USED TO INDICATE EXPRESSION IN A SENTENCE
- USED TO SHOWCASE EMPHASIS IN A SENTENCE
- PLACED AT THE END OF THE EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE
BRAVO! I WON THE QUIZ.
- USAGE OF SEMICOLON
- To replace a period to narrow the gap between two closely linked sentences; for example: Call me tomorrow; you can give me an answer then.
- Do you notice any others uses of semicolon here?
- Before words like namely, however, therefore, that is, i.e., for example, e.g., for instance, when they introduce a complete sentence; for example: Bring any two items; however, sleeping bags and water bottles are necessary.
- To separate units of a series when one or more of the units contain commas.
- Incorrect: The conference has people who have come from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, California, London, Tennessee, and other places as well.
- Correct: The conference has people who have come from Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai; California; London, Tennessee; and other places as well.
- Between independent clauses joined by a connector, such as and, but, or, nor,, when one or more commas appear in the first clause; for example: When I finish my work, I’ll be glad to help you; and that is a promise I will keep.
- USAGE OF APOSTROPHE
To make contractions of words
- they + have = they’ve
- are + not = aren’t
- they + will = they’ll
- Can you try using these in sentences?
To show possession.
- Rani’s dog is very old.
- My parents’ ancestral home is in Lucknow.
- Shreyas’s father is a doctor.
- Shreyas’ mother is also a doctor.