CBSE Class 8 Science Chapter 5 Coal and Petroleum Revision Notes
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▪ Coal, petroleum, and natural gas which are formed from the dead remains of living organisms are called fossil fuels.
▪ Coal is used to produce electricity in thermal power plants and to run steam engines. It is obtained from coal mines.
▪ The slow process of conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called Carbonisation.
▪ Petroleum is a dark oily liquid with an unpleasant smell. It is made up of several carbon compounds called fractions such as petrol, fuel oil, naphtha, and diesel and petroleum gas.
▪ The process of separation of petroleum into its constituents or fractions is called refining. It is carried out in an oil refinery.
▪ Natural gas is obtained along with petroleum. It is a clean fuel that can be directly used.
Natural gas is stored under high pressure as CNG. It can be supplied directly to homes through pipelines. It is used as a starting material in the preparation of many chemicals and fertilisers.
Types of natural resources
1. Renewable Resources:
The resources that can be repetitively used and can be replenished naturally are called renewable resources. Example: solar energy, wind energy.
2. Non-Renewable Resources:
The resources that can be replenished very slowly or cannot be replenished at all are known as non- renewable resources. Example: Coal, petrol, diesel.
Coal is a stone-like material that is black in color. It is also known as fossil fuel as it is produced by the decomposition of buried dead organisms. When burnt in air, it produces carbon dioxide. Some of the uses of coal are:
▪ As a fuel.
▪ To produce electricity in thermal power stations.
▪ Earlier, it was used to run the steam engine.
Formation of coal
Coal is formed when dead plant matter decays into peat and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over millions of years.
Petroleum is one of the biotic resources and is produced from decayed organic matter. There are some abiotic resources also. Some of the examples of abiotic resources are air, soil, water, rocks, and minerals such as gold, silver, and copper.
Formation of petroleum:
Petroleum is also known as fossil fuel as it is produced by the decomposition of dead organisms. It is an oily liquid, dark in color with an unpleasant odour. Petroleum is extracted from oil wells by drilling through pipelines.
CBSE Class 8 Science Chapter 5 Coal and Petroleum Revision Notes PDF