CBSE Class 8 Chapter 18 Pollution of Air and Water Revision Notes
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Air is the most important element for any living thing to survive. We find air around the earth in the form of a blanket which is known as the atmosphere. This air is a mixture of various gases. As a matter of fact, it is made of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% of other gases. When the air gets contaminated by unwanted substances which have a harmful effect on living and non-living things, it is known as air pollution.
Water pollution can be defined as the addition of undesirable substances into the hydrosphere. Here are some of the water pollutants that are either man-made or naturally occurring and their harmful effects.
Effects of pollution on Taj Mahal
Mathura oil refinery, rubber processing, automobile, and chemical industries around Agra release pollutants like SO2, NO2, and soot particles. The oxides dissolve in rainwater and form acid rain which corrodes the marble (Marble cancer); the soot particles cause yellowing of marble.
Effects of pollution on River Ganga
The huge amount of dumping of human wastes is one of the major reasons of the pollution of river Ganga. All the industries around this river dump their wastes in Ganga which causes a huge amount of pollution.
Greenhouse effect and global warming
Some gases like CO2, methane, and water vapor do not allow heat to escape from the atmosphere, causing an increase in the temperature. This leads to global warming resulting in the melting of glaciers and ice caps and affects aquatic life and vegetation. Deforestation increases an amount of CO2 (trees use CO2 for photosynthesis and if they are cut down, CO2 remains unused) and thus contributes to the greenhouse effect.
CBSE Class 8 Chapter 18 Pollution of Air and Water Revision Notes PDF