CBSE Class 8 Science Chapter 10 Reaching the Age of Adolescence Revision Notes
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Puberty and Adolescence
Puberty is the time in which sexual and physical characteristics mature. The exact age of puberty depends on a number of different things, such as genes, nutrition, and gender. Adolescence is the period between puberty and adulthood (generally between 11 and 19, or teenage). Puberty ends when an adolescent reaches reproductive maturity.
Changes at Puberty
Changes in boys
▪ Appearance of facial hair (beard and mustache).
▪ Appearance of body hair on the chest, back, arms, and legs.
▪ Deepening of voice and increase in the size of Adam’s apple in the throat.
▪ Broadening of shoulders.
▪ Sperms are produced by testes. This may be evident as night emission along with seminal fluid.
▪ Body becomes muscular.
Changes in Girls
▪ Broadening of hips
▪ Body becomes soft and rounded
▪ Appearance of breasts
▪ Menstrual cycle begins
Changes common in both boys and girls:-
▪ Increase in height and weight.
▪ Increased activity of sebaceous glands (oil and sweat glands) and therefore, the occurrence of pimples and acne takes place.
▪ Appearance of hair in the armpit and pubic region.
▪ Development in thinking, logical reasoning, and intelligence.
▪ Emotional changes like irritability, insecurity, anger, defiance, rebellious tendencies may occur in some boys and girls.
The chemical substances secreted by endocrine glands are known as hormones. They control the changes occurring in adolescence. The onset of puberty is controlled by sex hormones.
Role of Hormones during adolescence:
Pituitary gland releases hormones to stimulate testes in males and ovaries in females. Testosterone and Estrogen (Produced by testes and ovaries respectively) are released into the bloodstream which reaches the target site and produces puberty changes.