CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Periodic Classification of Elements Revision Notes

CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Periodic Classification of Elements Revision Notes

 

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Modern Periodic Table

 

Periodic Trends and Properties of Elements

 

Properties of Elements

▪ Atomic size: This is the distance from the nucleus to the valence shell where the valence electrons are located.

▪ Ionization energy: The amount of energy required to remove the valence electron of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation. It is measured in kJ/mol.

▪ Electron affinity: The electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion. It is measured in kJ/mol.

▪ Metallic character: The metallic character of an element can be defined as how readily an atom can lose an electron.

▪ Non-metallic character: The non-metallic character of an element can be defined as how readily an atom can gain an electron to attain stability.

▪ Electronegativity: Tendency of an atom in a molecule to draw the shared pair of
electrons towards itself is called electronegativity. It does not have units since it is only a tendency.

 

Trends in Periodic Properties

▪ Atomic size: Increases down the group (new shells are added).

▪ Atomic radius: Decreases across the period (increase in nuclear charge).

▪ Valency increases from 1-4 and then decreases from 4-0 across the period.

▪ Valency remains the same down the group.

▪ Metallic nature and the basic nature of oxides decrease across the period.

▪ Metallic nature decreases across the period (electropositivity decreases) and increases down the group (electropositivity increases).

▪ Non-metallic nature increases across periods (electronegativity increases) and decreases down the group (electronegativity decreases).

▪ Ionization energy decreases down the group.

▪ Electron affinity increases down the group.

 

CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Periodic Classification of Elements Revision Notes PDF

 

Periodic Classification Of Elements