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CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds Revision Notes

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CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds Revision Notes

 

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Allotropes of carbon

 

Carbon is capable of forming many allotropes due to its valency. Well-known forms of carbon include diamond and graphite.

 

Diamond: Diamond is a well-known allotrope of carbon. The hardness and high dispersion of light of diamond makes it useful for both industrial applications and jewelry. Diamond is the hardest known natural mineral. This makes it an excellent abrasive and makes it hold polish and lustre extremely well. No known naturally occurring substance can cut (or even scratch) a diamond, except another diamond.

Graphite: Graphite conducts electricity, due to the delocalization of the pi bond electrons above and below the planes of the carbon atoms. These electrons are free to move, so they are able to conduct electricity. However, electricity is only conducted along the plane of the layers.

Buckminsterfullerene: They are named for the resemblance of their allotropic structure to the geodesic structures devised by the scientist and architect Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller. Fullerenes are molecules of varying sizes composed entirely of carbon, which take the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube.

 

 

Versatile Nature of Carbon

 

The versatile nature of carbon can be best understood with its features such as, tetravalency and catenation. In this section let us learn more about the versatility of carbon. Carbon is a versatile element and is found in many different chemical compounds, including those found in space. Carbon is versatile because it can form single, double, and triple bonds. It can also form chains, branched chains, and rings when connected to other carbon atoms. The two characteristic features are seen in carbon, that is, tetravalency and catenation, put together give rise to a large number of compounds. Many have the same non-carbon atom or group of atoms attached to different carbon chains.

 

Catenation: The property of forming long chains by self-linking with other carbon atoms to form long chains, rings, double or triple bonds is called catenation.
Isomerism: Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural
formulas are called isomers. Isomerism commonly seen is due to differences in the arrangement of atoms or groups of atoms & is called structural isomerism.

 

 

CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds Revision Notes PDF

 

Carbon And Its Compounds

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