CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases, and Salts Revision Notes
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What is an Acid?
An acid is a molecule or ion, capable of contributing a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair. Acids form an aqueous solution with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus to red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts. The word acid is derived from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour.
Strong acids: Acids that completely dissociate into their ions in aqueous solutions. For example, nitric acid and sulphuric acid.
Weak acids: Acids that do not completely dissociate into their ions in aqueous solutions. For example, carbonic acid.
What is a Base?
A base is either a metallic hydroxide or a metallic oxide or aqueous ammonia that reacts with an acid to form salt and water only. Soaps are actually bases that are formed by the reaction of fatty acids with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
Characteristics of Bases:-
● They are slippery to touch
● They taste bitter
● They change red litmus to blue
● They react with acids to form salts
● They promote chemical reaction
● They contain displaceable OH- ions
● They accept protons from a proton donor
Strong bases: A basic chemical compound that can remove a proton (H+) from a molecule of a very weak acid in an acid-base reaction. Example: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), Potassium hydroxide (KOH).
Weak bases: A chemical base that does not ionize fully in an aqueous solution. Weak bases tend to build up in acidic fluids. Example: Ammonia.
What is Salt?
Salt is an ionic compound that is formed in the neutralization reaction between an acid and a base. In this reaction, all or part of the hydrogen of the acid is replaced by a metal or other cations.
Types of salts:-
● Neutral Salts: Strong Acid + Strong Base (pH value is 7)
o Example: Sodium chloride (NaCl), Calcium sulphate (CaSO4)
● Acidic Salts: Strong Acid + Weak Base (pH value is less than 7)
o Example: Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), Ammonium nitrate(NH4NO3)
● Basic Salts: Strong Base + Weak Acid (pH value is more than 7)
o Example: Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Sodium Acetate (CH3COONa)
● Common Salts:
o Sodium chloride is called common salt and is used in our food. It is derived from
o Common salt is an important raw material for many materials of daily use such as sodium hydroxide, washing soda and bleaching powder.
o Rock salt comes in the form of brown coloured large crystals and is mined like