CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 11 The Human Eye and the Colourful World Revision Notes
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It acts like a camera, enabling us to capture the colorful picture of the surroundings. An inverted, real image on light-sensitive is formed on the Retina.
The Various Parts of Eye and their Functions:
1. Cornea: It is a thin membrane through which light enters. It forms the transparent bulge on the front of the eyeball. Most of the refraction occurs at the outer surface of the cornea.
2. Eyeball: It is a convex lens, approximately spherical in shape, with a diameter of about 2.3 cm. It can alter its curvature with the help of ciliary muscles.
3. Iris: It is a dark muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil. It is behind the cornea.it helps in the accommodation of light by changing the size of the pupil.
4. Pupil: It regulates and controls the amount of light entering the eye. It is the black opening between aqueous humour & lens. Black in color. Light entering cannot exit.
5. Crystalline Eye Lens: Provides the focused real & inverted image of the object on the retina. It is composed of a fibrous, jelly-like material. This is a convex lens that converges light at the retina.
6. Ciliary Muscles: It helps to change the curvature of the eye lens and hence changes its focal length so that we can see the object clearly placed at different positions.
7. Retina: Thin membrane with large no. of light-sensitive cells.
There are two types of photoreceptors in the human retina, rods and cones.
Rods are responsible for vision at low light levels. They do not mediate color vision.
Cones are active at higher light levels and are capable of color vision. When an image is formed at the retina, light-sensitive cells get activated and generate electrical signals. These signals are sent to the brain via the optic nerve. The brain analyses these signals after which we perceive objects as they are.
8. The Vitreous Body: It is the clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eyeball of humans and other vertebrates.
9. The Aqueous Humour: Aqueous Humour is a transparent, watery fluid similar to plasma, but containing low protein concentrations.