Chapter 6 of NCERT class 10 science is A Life Process where you will understand different processes of Nutrition, Respiration, Transpiration, and Excretion in Plants and Human Beings. There are a total of 13 questions in this chapter that will strengthen your concepts.
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NCERT Solution for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 A Life Process PDF
Why is diffusion insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements multicellular
organisms like humans?
In multi-cellular organisms, there are specific organs for taking in food and exchange of gases and removal of wastes. Thus, all cells aren’t in direct contact with the encircling environment unlike single-celled organisms during which there are not any specific organ for exchange.
What criteria do we use to decide whether something is alive?
Living organisms are well-organised structures and they must keep repairing and maintaining their structures. Since living organisms are made up of molecules, they must move molecules all the time to be considered alive.
What are outside raw materials used for by an organism?
Most of the food sources are carbon based. Different organisms use different complex nutritional process to prevent damage and break-down of energy needed for them. Oxygen is also used by many organisms from outside the body.
What processes would you consider essential for maintaining life?
Essential processes for maintaining life are –
Exercise No: 6.2
What are the differences between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic
Solution: Refer pdf.
Where do plants get each of the raw materials required for photosynthesis?
Absorption of carbon dioxide takes place through pores.
Water used for photosynthesis is preoccupied from soil by the roots.
Nitrogen, phosphorous, iron and magnesium are taken up from soil.
Nitrogen is important and brought up in sort of inorganic nitrates or nitrites.
What is the role of acid in our stomach?
Acid in our stomach kills bacteria and parasites ingested with food. It also activates enzymes pepsin used for protein digestion. Mucus is also released for protecting inner lining of stomach from action of acid.
What is the function of digestive enzymes?
Digestion functions are taken care by the gastric glands presented in wall of stomach. Hydrochloric acid activates the enzyme pepsin for digestion. Food coming from stomach is acidic and is formed alkaline for pancreatic enzymes to act. Bile juice from lever accomplishes this by acting on fats by breaking them into small globules, this increases efficiency of enzymes.
How is small intestine designed to absorb digested food?
The inner lining of small intestine has many finer-like projections called villi. These increase the surface area for absorption. Villi are furnished with blood vessels which take the absorbed food to every cell of the entire body. Absorbed food then utilised for obtaining energy, maintenance of tissues. Unabsorbed food is sent into large intestine for further digestion.
Exercise No: 6.3
What advantage over an aquatic organism does a terrestrial organism
have with regard to obtaining oxygen for respiration?
Terrestrial organisms use the oxygen within the atmosphere for respiration while aquatic organisms use oxygen dissolved in water. Since the quantity of dissolved oxygen in water is low as compared to amount of oxygen in atmosphere, the speed of inhaling in acquatic organisms is quicker.
What are the different ways in which glucose is oxidised to provide energy
in various organisms?
Solution: Refer pdf.
How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human beings?
In human beings, air is taken into body through the nostrils. Nostrils filter the passing air by fine hairs that line the passage. Air passes through throat to the lungs. Within lungs, the passage divides into smaller tubes which finally end up at alveoli which contains excessive network of blood vessels. Blood brings carbon dioxide (CO2) from rest of the body for release into alveoli and the oxygen in the alveolar air is taken up by the blood to be transported to cells of the body.
How are the lungs designed in human beings to maximize the area for
exchange of gases?
Within the lungs, the passage is split into smaller and smaller tubes which finally terminate in balloon-like structures called alveoli. The alveoli provide a big surface for exchange of gases to take place. Alveolar walls have network of blood vessels for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
As we inhale, we lift our ribs and flatten our diaphragm and therefore the chest cavity becomes larger as a result.
Exercise No: 6.4
What are the components of the transport system in human beings?
What are the functions of these components?
Heart, blood and blood vessels are the components liable for transport system in human beings. Function of heart is to pump oxygenated blood throughout the body and deoxygenated blood to lungs for oxygenation.
Function of blood is protection, transport and regulation.
A blood vessel carries blood from heart to various organs of body.
Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in
mammals and birds?
Separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood allows a highly efficient supply of oxygen to the body. This is useful for animals and birds as they have high energy needs.
What are the components of transport system in highly organised plants?
Plant transport system move energy stores from leaves and material from roots.
Components of transport system are –
Xylem moves water and minerals obtained from soil and Phloem products of photosynthesis to other part of plants.
How are water and minerals transported in plants?
Xylem moves water and minerals obtained from soil. In xylem tissue, vessels and tracheid’s of the roots ,stems and leaves are interconnected to make endless system of water conducting channels reaching all parts of plant.\
How is food transported in plants?
Products of photosynthesis from leaves are moved to other parts of plant. This transportation is named translocation and it occurs partially of vascular tissue known as Phloem. It transports amino acid and other substances besides products of photosynthesis. The translocation in phloem is achieved by utilising energy.
Exercise No: 6.5
Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons.
The capillary cluster in the kidney is related to cup-shaped end of a tube that collects the filtered urine as shown in the figure. Each kidney have sizable amount of filtration units called nephrons. Nephron is employed to separate glucose, salts, amino acids and major amount of water which is selectively reabsorbed as the urine flows along the tube.
What are the methods used by the plants to get rid of the excretory
Excretion method of plants is totally different than those of animals. They eliminate excess water by transpiration and waste products excrete from the leaves that fall off. Other waste products are stored as gums and resins, also plants excrete some waste substances into soil around them.
How amount of urine is produced regulated?
The purpose of creating urine is to filter waste products from the blood. The quantity of water re-absorbed depends on what proportion of dissolved water there’s in body and on what proportion dissolved water is to be excreted. The urine enters the long tube, urethra which connects the kidneys with the urinary bladder. Urine is stored within the urinary bladder until the expanded bladder pressure results in the urge to pass it out through the urethra.
Exercise Chapter 6
The kidneys in human beings are a part of system for
The xylem in plants is responsible for
(a) Transport of water.
(b) Transport of food.
(c) Transport of amino acids.
(d) Transport of acids.
(a) Transport of water.
The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires
(a) Carbon dioxide and water.
(d) all of the above.
(d) All the above.
The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy takes
How are fats digested in our bodies? Where does this process take place?
Small intestine is the site of the complete digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. The small intestine gets the secretions within the sort of bile juice and pancreatic juice respectively from the liver and therefore the pancreas. The large fat globules are break down into smaller globules by the bile salts (from the lever) in order that the pancreatic enzymes can easily act on them.
The pancreatic juice is secreted by pancreas. The pancreatic juice contains lipase for breaking down of emulsified fats and trypsin for digesting proteins. The enzymes that is present in it finally convert complex carbohydrates into glucose, proteins to amino acids and fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
What is the role of saliva in digestion of food?
The saliva contains salivary amylase (an enzyme) that breaks down starch which is a complex molecule to provide sugar. The food is mixed thoroughly with saliva and moved round the mouth while chewing by the muscular tongue.
What are the necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition and what are
Autotrophic nutrition is the process by which the substances are taken from outside by the autotrophs and after conversion stored in sorts of energy.
In this, the material is taken in the form of carbon dioxide and water. These substances convert into carbohydrates in presence of chlorophyll and sunlight. Carbohydrates are stored in form of starch which is employed later by plants.
2 2 6 12 6 2 6 6 6
ChlorophyII CO H C H O O Sunlight + ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ +
The following events occur in this process –
(i) Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll.
(ii) The light energy is converted into chemical and also splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.
(iii) Carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrates.
What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
Name some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration.
Solution: Refer pdf.
How are the alveoli designed to maximize the exchange of gases?
Each lung have bronchi which is divided into bronchioles. These are further divided into smaller and smaller balloon-like structures called alveoli. This balloon-like structure gives a bigger surface area and takes very less volume. The walls of alveoli are very thin and have extensive network of blood vessels. Alveoli’s are site of exchange of gases like carbondioxide and oxygen.
Consequently, they provide a bigger surface area in very less volume hence maximizing the exchange of gases.
What would be the consequences of deficiency of haemoglobin in our
Transportation of oxygen to the cells in several part of body is completed by haemoglobin. The deficiency of haemoglobin within the blood reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood which can leads to improper supply of oxygen to tissues of the body. This improper supply of oxygen leads to breathing problems , lack of energy and tiredness.
Describe double circulation in human beings. Why is it necessary?
The heart is a muscular organ which is as big as our fist. The heart is divided into chambers to prevent mixing of oxygen rich blood with deoxygenated blood.
Blood circulation is the path taken by blood to move throughout the body to provide necessary elements. In double circulation, the blood goes through the heart twice during each cardiovascular cycle.
In double circulation blood passes though two pathways –
1. Systematic circulation –
The oxygenated blood is pumped into aorta from where it circulates to various parts of body. Deoxygenated blood is collected by veins and pumped back into vena cava and then to right atrium. This deoxygenated blood carried to the right ventricle via the right atrium.
2. Pulmonary circulation –
The right ventricle pumps the blood into the pulmonary artery. Deoxygenated blood carried to lungs to get oxygenated. After oxygenation, pulmonary vein pumps this oxygenated blood to the left atrium which pumps it into the left ventricle. Left ventricle pumps this oxygen rich blood to aorta for systematic circulation. Double circulation is necessary as it avoids mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood and helps in keeping up steady body temperature.
What are the differences between the transport of materials in xylem and
Solution: Refer pdf.
Compare the functioning of alveoli in lungs and nephrons in the kidneys
with respect to their structure and functioning.
Solution: Refer pdf.