Chapter 4 of NCERT class 10 science is Carbon and its Compounds. In this chapter, you will understand covalent bonds that exist in Carbon and its derivatives. This chapter has a total of fifteen questions. These questions will help you understand the nomenclature of carbon and its compounds.
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NCERT Solution for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds
How many covalent bonds are there in C2H6?
(a) 6 covalent bonds.
(b) 8 covalent bonds.
(c) 7 covalent bonds.
(d) 5 covalent bonds.
(c) 7 covalent bonds.
What is the functional group in the Butanone?
When the bottom of the vessel is getting blackened on the outside while
cooking, it shows that:-
(a) The food is cooked completely.
(b) The fuel is not burning completely.
(c) The food is not cooked.
(d) The fuel is burning completely.
(b) it means that the fuel is not burnt completely
Explain the nature of the covalent bond using the bond formation in
Carbon is tetravalent in nature. In the outermost shell, carbon have four electrons removal of these electrons needs more energy and gain the four electrons needs more energy. To complete the octet, carbon needs to share the four electrons with other carbon atoms or different atoms. Carbon forms one bond with chlorine and three bonds with hydrogen.
Draw the cross dot structures of the following compounds.
(a)Ethiopic acid. (b) H2S. (c) Propanone. (d) f2.
(a) Ethanoic acid.
What is a homologous series? Explain with an example.
A homologous series is a series of carbon compounds that have same chemical properties but different physical properties and the differences between two successive compounds is –CH2.
For example: Alkenes family. The general formula of Alkenes is CnH2n+2 .methaneCH4
Ethane CH3CH3 Propane CH3CH2CH3 Butane CH3CH2CH2 CH3
How can ethanol and ethanoic acid be differentiated on the basis of their
physical and chemical properties?
Physical properties: The melting point of ethanol is -114.1 °C and ethanoic acid is 16.6 °C.
Ethanoic acid melting point is below the room temperature it freezes during winters. Ethanol is liquid at room temperature but ethanoic acid is solid at room temperature. Ethanol has pleasant smell and ethanoic acid is vinegar smell.
Chemical Properties: Ethanol is alcohol and ethanoic acid is carboxylic acid. When alcohol and carboxylic acid reacts with carbonates and bicarbonates than only carboxlylic acid reacts with carbonates and bicarbonates and evolve the CO2gas that turns lime water milky.
CH3COOH + NaHCO3 or
Na2CO3 CH3COONa + CO2 + H2O
In the electrolytic refining of a metal M, what would you take as the anode,
the cathode and the electrolyte?
In the electrolytic refining of a metal M: Anode → Impure metal M Cathode → Pure metal
M Electrolyte → Solution of salt of the metal M
Why are carbon and its compounds used as fuels for most applications?
When the saturated carbon compounds burnt with air form a carbon dioxide, water with lot of energy and light. In this reaction no smoke will produce so less pollution. It is exothermic process. It is used as fuels because high calorific value.
Explain the formation of scum when hard water is treated with soap.
Soaps are the sodium or potassium salt of long chain of carboxylic acid. Hard water contains the chloride and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. When soap will add in the hard water form less lather so some amount of salt is unused. This insoluble salt is known as scum.
What change will you observe if you test soap with litmus paper (red and
Since Soap is basic in nature hence red litmus turns blue but blue litmus has no changes.
What is hydrogenation? What is its industrial application?
The addition of hydrogen on the unsaturated compounds are known as hydrogenation. It is an addition reaction in the presence of Ni/Pt/Pd as catalyst. Unsaturated compounds convert into the saturated compounds. Through this process the vegetable oil is converts into ghee.
Which of the following hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions: C2H6 ,
C3H8, C3H6, C2H2 and CH4.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions. The unsaturated hydrocarbons General formula is Cn H2n-2 or CnH2n. In the given compounds C3H6 and C2H2 undergo addition reactions while C2H6, C2H8 andCH4 are saturated hydrocarbon.
Give a test that can be used to differentiate chemically between butter and
Cooking oil is unsaturated fats but the butter is saturated. By hydrogenation, oil will reacts but butter will not reacts.
Explain the mechanism of the cleaning action of soaps.
Cleansing action of soaps:- Soap contains the two parts. One part is hydrophilic and other part is hydrophobic. Soaps are the sodium or potassium salt of long chain of carboxylic acid. When the dirty clothes dip in the soap Solution. The hydrophobic ends attach the dirt and form a big cluster. This cluster is known as micelle and traps the dirt